Wire-arc Additive Manufacturing

Large-scale Metal Additive Manufacturing Capability

WAM®, a metal additive manufacturing technology, is a versatile and cost-effective AM process gaining traction in various industries.

WAM® Standards

Standardisation ensures the consistency, reliability, and safety of WAM® processes. Several standards organisations have been developing and maintaining standards for Wire-arc Additive Manufacturing, including:

  • ASTM International: ASTM International develops standards for materials, products, systems, and services. They have several WAAM-related standards, such as ASTM F3187-16, the standard Guide for Directed Energy Deposition of Metals.
  • ISO (International Organization for Standardization): ISO develops international standards for various industries. They have a technical committee (TC 261) dedicated to AM, which has published an extensive range of published standards and is continuously developing WAAM-related standards such as ISO/ASTM DIS 52943-2 Additive Manufacturing for aerospace - Process characteristics and performance Part 2: Directed energy deposition using wire and arc.
  • SAE International: SAE International develops standards for the aerospace industry. They have WAAM-related standards, such as AMS 7004, which provides material specifications for WAAM-deposited titanium alloys and AMS 7005, Wire Fed Plasma Arc Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing Process.

In many cases, each global region has standards that refer back to ASTM, ISO, and SAE, including Australian Standards (AS), British Standards (BS) and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN).

Industry Driven Standards

Many industries have specific industry and product-specific standards created to reduce the risk of error, ensure quality, enhance safety and set expectations for quality and performance.

For WAM®, a few early adopter industries paving the way, such as Maritime, Oil and Gas, Defence and Aerospace, understand that alternative manufacturing methods will be needed long term to improve part design, quality, resourcing, and progress forward. These standards have been driven by the certification bodies, many working with standards organisations and providers to industry:

  • Lloyd’s Register: for maritime and offshore – Facility, Material and Part Certification. Includes guidance notes on AM and Certification of Wire-arc Additive Manufacturing Consumables.
  • DNV: for maritime, power and resources, oil & gas, and aerospace – Approval of Manufacturer Certification, Material and Part (Class) Certification.
  • API (American Petroleum Institute): Standard 20S, Additively Manufactured Metallic Components for Use in the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries.
  • AWS (American Welding Society): standards and codes for welding, including D20.1 Specification for Fabrication of Metal Components using Additive Manufacturing.
  • ASME (The American Society of Mechanical Engineers): standards, codes and code cases for a range of industries, including ASME BPVC, the largest source of technical data for Manufacturing and construction of Boiler and Pressure Vessels.
  • Defence standards such as NAVSEA, Mil-Spec, Def Stans.

Standard NameStandard CodeStandard Description
BS ISO/ASTM52900Additive Manufacturing - General Principles-Terminology
BS ISO/ASTM52915Standard specification for additive manufacturing file format (AMF) Version 1.1.
ASTMF3187Standard Guide for Directed Energy Deposition of Metals
ISO/ASTM52901Standard Guide for Additive Manufacturing – General Principles – Requirements for Purchased AM Parts
LR/TWILloyds Register and TWI Guidance Notes for Additive Manufacturing
DNVGLCG-0197Qualification and Certification Process for Materials and Components
AWSD20Specification for Fabrication of Metal Components using Additive Manufacturing
BSIPAS6010Additive Manufacturing - Wire for directed energy deposition (DED) processes in additive manufacturing - Specification
BSIPAS6011Additive Manufacturing – Non-destructive testing for use in directed energy deposition – Guide
BSIPAS6012Additive Manufacturing - Wire arc - Guide
DNVGLST-B203Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Parts
API20SAPI 20S_(2021)Additively manufactured Metallic Components for use in the Petroleum & Natural Gas Industries
ASMEIX (9) Welding, Brazing and Fusion Qualifications (include Wire-arc Additive Manufacturing)
SAEAMS7005AMS7005 - Wire Fed Plasma Arc Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing Process
ISO/ASTM52943_2Additive Manufacturing for aerospace — Process characteristics and performance — Part 2: Directed energy deposition using wire and arc
ISO/ASTM52926-5Additive Manufacturing of Metals - Qualification Principles - QUALIFICATION of OPERATORS for DED-Arc

Improve Your Part Supply Chain

Industry Case Studies


AML3D WAM® Propeller

Demonstrating ARCEMY® and Wire Additive Manufacturing’s capability to reduce metal part production times when compared to traditional manufacturing methods, AML3D’s case study CAD to Part in 24 hours showcases the transformative potential of WAM from design to production to post-production treatment.

2022-06-29 Pipe Spool Printing

AML3D WAM® Pipe Spool

Leveraging advanced CAD design and precise control over the wire additive manufacturing process, AML3D successfully fabricated a complex, schedule 160 concentric reducer for the high-pressure industry. The verification of this part helps to demonstrate the technology, its structural integrity, reliability, and capability for large-scale industrial applications.